Whipped egg white is one of the keys to success in making sponge cakes, and also included in recipes of delicious desserts such as chocolate mousse. Here is a look at the chemistry of the whipping egg white process. An egg white contains about 10% protein. Egg white proteins are made of long chains of amino acids that are twisted and curled up into a spherical shape.
The whisking process uncurls and stretches out the proteins. Beating egg white also produces air bubbles in the mixture, which are surrounded by a thin layer of egg protein. The hydrophilic amino acids on the proteins are attracted to water in the egg white, while the hydrophobic ones are sticking out into the air bubbles. Finally, the protein coatings form bonds with each other to create foam.